The aim of this study is to determine the energy input and output for wheat and cotton production in the Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The data used in this study were collected through a questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. In the study, the inputs included human labor, machinery, electricity, diesel fuel, oil, fertilizers and seeds which were taken into account in calculation of energy use for wheat and cotton production. Energy values were calculated by multiplying the amounts of inputs and outputs by their energy equivalents with the use of related conversion factors. The output/input ratio was determined by dividing the output value by the input. The total energy used in various farm inputs were 17160 MJ/ha for wheat and 39538 MJ/ha for cotton production. The energy output/input ratio was found to be 2.21 for wheat and 2.38 for cotton production. The specific energy for wheat and cotton production was 7.18 MJ/kg and 10.52 MJ/kg, while the energy productivity was found to be of the order of 0.14 kg/MJ and 0.095 kg/MJ, respectively. The results of the study reveal that improper production techniques applied at improper time, and irrational input use are the main causes of inefficiencies in energy use. Reduced tillage methods should be adopted in order to achieve considerable savings, particularly in mechanical energy.