Biodiesel production from tall oil with synthesized Mn and Ni based additives: Effects of the additives on fuel consumption and emissions


Keskin A. , GÜRÜ M., ALTIPARMAK D.

FUEL, cilt.86, ss.1139-1143, 2007 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

Özet

In this study, biodiesel fuel and fuel additives were produced from crude tall oil that is a by-product in the pulp manufacturing by craft or sulphate pulping process. Fatty acids and resinic acids were obtained from crude tall oil by distillation method. Tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel) was produced from fatty acids. Resinic acids were reacted with NiO and MnO2 stoichiometrically for production of metallic fuel additives. Each metallic fuel additive was added at the rate of 8 mu mol/l and 12 mu mol/l to make mixtures of 60% tall oil methyl ester/40% diesel fuel (TE60) for preparing test fuels. Metallic fuel additives improved properties of biodiesel fuels, such as pour point and viscosity values. Biodiesel fuels were tested in an unmodified direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. Specific fuel consumption of biodiesel fuels increased by 6.00%, however, in comparison with TE60, it showed trend of decreasing with adding of additives. Exhaust emission profile of biodiesel fuels improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased up to 64.28% and 30.91% respectively. Low NOx emission was also observed in general for the biodiesel fuels. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.