Freshwater organisms are highly sensitive to increases in salinity because they causes serious osmoregulation problems. Salinity of inland waters can be increased as a result of anthropogenic activities. In this study, freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed individually to increased salinities (0, 2, and 8 ppt) alone and salinity+metal [1 mu g/mL chromium (Cr) or lead (Pb) exposure at 2 and 8 ppt] exposures for different time periods (1, 7, and 14 days) to investigate the response of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase in the osmoregulatory tissues (gill and intestine). Results showed that enzyme activity varied depending on salinity, tissue, metal, and exposure duration. Metal levels in controls and salinity-exposed groups were lower than the detection limit, although significant Cr and Pb accumulation occurred in the salinity+metal combination groups. In salinity-exposed groups, there were increasing trends in the enzyme activity, whereas there were decreasing trends in the metal+salinity groups. Gill ATPases were more affected by the exposure conditions compared with intestine ATPases. Results showed that salinity+metal exposure both played significant roles on ATPase activities in the osmoregulatory tissues, although the alterations in the activity were mostly insignificant supporting compensation mechanisms. Results also suggest that the osmoregulation of freshwater fish should be investigated in toxicity- monitoring programs in inland waters.