Atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for ESRD patients and we have little knowledge about the presence and risk factors of atherosclerosis in children with CRF. The measurement of carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) using high-resolution ultrasonography is suggested as an excellent marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of atherosclerosis and to determine the relationship between atherosclerosis and some risk factors in children and young adults with ESRD. Thirty-four patients with ESRD and 20 controls were included in this study. The measurement of cIMT was performed by using a linear B-mode 7.5-MHz ultrasound transducer. We determined anemia, abnormal calcium/phosphate metabolism, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and increased lipoprotein (a) levels in the ESRD group. The cIMT in the ESRD group was higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). SBP, DBP, MAP, LVMI and LVH prevalence were statistically higher in the ESRD group (P < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between cIMT and LVMI, MBP, whereas a significant negative correlation was determined between cIMT and PTH in the ESRD group (P < 0.05). When a multiple linear regression analysis was performed with cIMT as a dependent variable and LVMI, MBP, PTH, as independent variables, a significant positive correlation was determined between cIMT and LVMI (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we think that arteriopathy occurs in children with ESRD. Left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension may associate with vascular changes in children and young adults with ESRD. Further investigations are necessary to explain association of LVMI index with cIMT.