Blood levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in 78 patients with burn sepsis. Of these patients, 51 were managed with additional administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in addition to routine treatment procedures (group A), while 27 received only routine treatment (group B). G-CSF was administrated for at least nine and at most 14 days; doses were gradually decreased in each 3 day period. On the 1st, 4th, 7th, 10th and 15th days, blood levels of TNF-alpha were determined. We sought to determine whether TNF alpha levels had a prognostic value in the management of burn induced sepsis that was treated with G-CSF. in our study, patients with gradually decreasing TNF-alpha levels in the second 3 day period, were strong candidates for survival, because TNF-alpha levels decreased little in nonsurvivors but decreased gnarly in survivors. The survival rate was 42/51 (82.3%) in group A and 9/27 (33.3%) in group B. In conclusion, G-CSF had positive effects on survival, and TNF-alpha was a predictor of prognosis in burn-induced sepsis. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.