Among the various postoperative complications of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) operation, common peroneal nerve (CPN) palsy is a rare one. In this report we present a 47 years old, female patient who suffered from foot drop postoperatively after an ACDF operation performed in supine position and discuss the medicolegal implications of intraoperative nerve injuries in the light of the foregoing literature. CPN palsy due to intraoperative positioning in neurosurgical practice is very seldomly reported. CPN palsy occurrence should be anticipated and prevented espacially in the presence of the risk factors. There is still a serious need for a more comprehensive understanding of these risk factors. On the other hand intraoperative nerve injuries are becoming a subject of litigation more frequently. The interdisciplinary responsibilities concerning the positioning must be clearly defined and it is essential that the documentation of positioning is carried out as accurately as possible.