Lithology Discrimination in Foreland Basin with Landsat TM

Gul M., GÜRBÜZ K., Kalelioglu O.

JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN SOCIETY OF REMOTE SENSING, vol.40, no.2, pp.257-269, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


The Kahramanmaras Foreland Basin (KFB) margins are formed by Paleozoic-Mesozoic limestone, metamorphic and ophiolite. This basin contains sandstone and claystone alternations with lesser amounts of reefal limestone, channelized conglomerates, debrites and slump deposits. An irregular topography and absence of path obscured the accurate and complete mapping of the basin. Thus, Landsat TM images were used. The RGB 751 false colour composites were chosen due to abundant claystone and limestone content of the KFB. The RGB PCA 145 was preferred due to high loading of TM bands 5 (clay and iron oxide mineral), 7 (carbonate mineral), 3 and 1 (albedo and topography). The RGB 5/7-5/1-4 (light green dots in 5/7 indicate enhanced claystone area and OH- bearing alteration zone; red dots in 5/1 indicate enhanced iron oxide bearing alteration zone; fourth band for water bearing minerals) shows the transportation way of sediments. The OH- and iron oxide bearing alteration zones are found on older source rocks and younger deposition area. Main lithological boundary, geometry and provenance properties of the KFB were satisfactorily obtained from the Landsat TM images. However, low spatial resolution (30 m) prevents detail facies discrimination that still requires hard field working and/or detailed satellite images.