The Independent Domestication of Timopheev's Wheat: Insights from Haplotype Analysis of the Brittle rachis 1 (BTR1-A) Gene


Nave M., Tas M., Raupp J., Tiwari V. K. , ÖZKAN H. , Poland J., ...More

GENES, vol.12, no.3, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/genes12030338
  • Title of Journal : GENES
  • Keywords: brittle rachis, domestication, haplotype analysis, progenitor, wild emmer wheat, Timopheev&#8217, s wheat, TRITICUM-TIMOPHEEVII, CHLOROPLAST DNA, EVOLUTION, DIVERSITY, ORIGIN, TURGIDUM, AEGILOPS

Abstract

Triticum turgidum and T. timopheevii are two tetraploid wheat species sharing T. urartu as a common ancestor, and domesticated accessions from both of these allopolyploids exhibit nonbrittle rachis (i.e., nonshattering spikes). We previously described the loss-of-function mutations in the Brittle Rachis 1 genes BTR1-A and BTR1-B in the A and B subgenomes, respectively, that are responsible for this most visible domestication trait in T. turgidum. Resequencing of a large panel of wild and domesticated T. turgidum accessions subsequently led to the identification of the two progenitor haplotypes of the btr1-A and btr1-B domesticated alleles. Here, we extended the haplotype analysis to other T. turgidum subspecies and to the BTR1 homologues in the related T. timopheevii species. Our results showed that all the domesticated wheat subspecies within T. turgidum share common BTR1-A and BTR1-B haplotypes, confirming their common origin. In T. timopheevii, however, we identified a novel loss-of-function btr1-A allele underlying a partially brittle spike phenotype. This novel recessive allele appeared fixed within the pool of domesticated Timopheev's wheat but was also carried by one wild timopheevii accession exhibiting partial brittleness. The promoter region for BTR1-B could not be amplified in any T. timopheevii accessions with any T. turgidum primer combination, exemplifying the gene-level distance between the two species. Altogether, our results support the concept of independent domestication processes for the two polyploid, wheat-related species.