The laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis is based on microscopic examination, culture, serological tests, and molecular methods. In this study, we examined 50 blood specimens from suspected visceral leishmaniasis patients by microscopic examination, recombinant antigen dipstick test (rK39), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the University of Cukurova, Faculty of Medicine, Parasitology Department in Turkey. We calculated the sensitivity-specificity and positive-negative predictive values for these diagnostic tests. We found that positive predictive value of microscopy examination, rK39 dipstick test, and PCR were 20%, 24%, and 58% for visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. When we compared polymerase chain reaction, recombinant antigen dipstick test, and microscopic examination for visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis, the polymerase chain reaction is more sensitive (100%) than recombinant antigen dipstick test and microscopy examination.