Several studies claim that prothrombin 20210GA and factor V Leiden mutations are related to arterial thrombosis. We investigated the frequencies of these mutations and their significance in the development of early atherosclerosis in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients younger than 55 years of age. We investigated 96 patients with AMI and 77 control subjects. The diagnosis of AMI was established by typical chest pain and ST elevations on the presentation electrocardiogram and characteristic cardiac enzyme elevations. None of the control subjects had evidence of cardiovascular disease. DNA samples were isolated from all subjects and prothrombin 20210GA and factor V Leiden mutations were determined by the RealTime PCR technique with the aid of a Light Cycler device. The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was 6.3% and 5.2% in the patient and control groups, respectively (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.1-3.9], P = 0.6), whereas the prevalence of prothrombin G20210A mutation was 4.2% and 2.6% in the patient and control groups, respectively (OR 2.8 [95% CI 0.2 - 32.2], P = 0.4). None of the patients had both mutations. Prothrombin 20210GA and factor V Leiden mutations are not significant risk factors for the development of myocardial infarction in patients less than 55 years old in Southern Turkey.