Thirty-four isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (Fo.m.) obtained from 205 fields in melon-producing areas in the southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey were identified on the basis of colony morphology and pathogenicity by the root dip method. In this region the mean prevalence of wilt disease was 88.1% and the mean incidence of disease was 47.5%. Physiologic races 0, 1, 2, and 1,2 of the pathogen were determined by their reactions on differential melon cultivars 'Charentais T,' 'Isoblon', 'Isovac' and 'Margot' in the greenhouse. Race 1,2, representating 58.8% (20/34) of all isolates, was widely distributed. Of the other pathogenic isolates, eight were identified as race 0, five as race 1, and one as race 2. This is the first report of physiologic races of F.o.m. in Turkey. Of 44 melon cultivars tested in the greenhouse for resistance to Fo.m. races, 36 were found to be moderately resistant to race 0, 17 were susceptible to race 1,2, 34.1% were highly resistant to race 1, and 52.2% had moderate resistance to race 2.