Retrospective Evaluation of the Effect of Lumbar Sympathetic Blockade on Pain Scores, Fontaine Classification, and Collateral Perfusion Status in Patients with Lower Extremity Peripheral Arterial Disease

Creative Commons License

Keser-Pehlivan C., Kucukbingoz C., Pehlivan U. A., BALLI H. T., ÜNLÜGENÇ H., Ozbek H. T.

Medicina (Lithuania), vol.60, no.5, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 60 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/medicina60050682
  • Journal Name: Medicina (Lithuania)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Doppler US, Fontaine Classification, lumbar sympathetic block, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Pain Detect Questionnaire (PDQ)
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: Yes


Background and Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of lumbar sympathetic block (LSB) on pain scores, Fontaine Classification, and collateral perfusion status in patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD), in whom revascularization is impossible. Material and Methods: Medical records of 21 patients with PAD who underwent LSB with a combination of local anesthetics, steroids, and patient follow-up forms containing six-month follow-ups between January 2020 and March 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Pain Detect Questionnaire (PDQ) scores, Fontaine Classification Stages, and collateral perfusion status (collateral diameter and/or development of neovascularization) evaluated by arterial color Doppler Ultrasound (US) from the medical records and follow-up forms of the patients were reviewed. Results: NRS and PDQ scores were significantly lower, and regression of the Fontaine Classification Stages was significantly better after the procedure at the first, third, and sixth month than at the baseline values (p < 0.001). Only four patients (19%) had collaterals before the procedure. An increase in the collateral diameter after LSB was noted in three out of four patients. Before the procedure, 17 patients had no prominent collateral. However, in thirteen of these patients, after LSB, neovascularization was detected during the six-month follow-up period (three patients in the first month, seven patients in the third month, and thirteen patients in the sixth month). The number of patients evolving neovascularization after LSB was found to be statistically significant at the third and sixth months compared to the initial examination (p < 0.001). Conclusions: LSB with the use of local anesthetic and steroids in patients with lower extremity PAD not only led to lower NRS and PDQ scores, but also resulted in regressed Fontaine Classification Stages and better collateral perfusion status.