Twenty-eight consecutive patients, aged 34-78 years with non-cardiogenic ischemic stroke were evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). All patients were in sinus rhythm. Six of 28 patients (21.4%) displayed protruding masses in the aortic lumen. Five of these masses were located in the ascending aorta and one in the thoracic aorta. Our study suggests that cerebral infarction may also be due to aortic atherosclerotic plaques. Although our findings do not necessarily provide a causative link between atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic lumen and cerebral infarction, they may be an alternative potential source of stroke. TEE is the method of choice in detecting such lesions at the present time.