Aim The expression of the cognate receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in malignant tissues of patients with type 2 diabetes has been suggested as a co-factor determining the clinical course and prognosis. We aimed to investigate the relationship between RAGE expression and clinicopathological features of prostate neoplasia. Methods Tissue samples of 197 patients, 64 (24 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 controls) with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 133 (71 patients with type 2 diabetes and 62 controls) with localised or metastatic prostate cancer (LPCa/MetPCa) were included in the study. The expression of RAGE in prostate specimens was studied immunohistochemically. RAGE scores were determined according to the extent of immunoreactivity and staining intensity. Results RAGE expression in BPH group (patients with type 2 diabetes and controls) was negative. Patients with both LPCa and MetPCa had significantly higher scores than those with BPH (P< .001). The mean RAGE scores of patients with type 2 diabetes LPCa and MetPCa were 4.71 +/- 3.14 and 4.97 +/- 3.69. The mean scores of control LPCa and MetPCa were 1.52 +/- 1.87 and 1.69 +/- 1.58, respectively. The scores of patients with type 2 diabetes LPCa and MetPCa were significantly higher than those of control LPCa and MetPCa (P= .01 andP< .001, respectively). Conclusion We found higher RAGE expression levels in malignant prostate neoplasia than in BPH. As expected, patients with diabetes had higher scores than control patients. Disease progression and survival parameters were worse in patients with high RAGE levels. RAGE expression may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer.