Aims: We herein report the results of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide (IVCP) therapy of 5 patients with steroid-resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). All patients had been treated with oral and intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and failed to respond to steroids from onset and were considered as primary steroid-resistant. Before starting IVCP, all patients were also treated with other immunosuppressive drugs with Or Without steroids, but none of them responded to such therapies and no patient had any NPSH2 gene mutations. Methods: IVCP was given monthly at a dose of 500 mg/m(2) for 6 months. At the end of 6 months, IVCP was discontinued in case there was no response. Otherwise, IVCP was continued for every 2 months. Oral prednisone was given concurrently at 60 mg/m(2) daily for 6 weeks and then 40 mg/m(2) on alternate days for 4 weeks. Prednisone was then tapered to 10 mg/m(2) alternate days and continued during the therapy period. Results: Only 1 of these patients achieved remission after IVCP while 4 patients showed no response to IVCP. 2 patients who did not achieve remission progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 2 others who had not been treated with cyclosporine before underwent cyclosporine therapy. None of our patients has suffered from adverse effects of IVCP. Conclusion: We found that IVCP had a limited beneficial effect in treatment of steroid-resistant FSGS and it may be suggested that IVCP can be tried to treat steroid-resistant patients, also for patients with primary steroid resistance and those who do not respond to other immunosuppressive therapies.