This study was conducted at the Experimental area of Cukurova University in 2013 and 2014 as a main and double crop growing seasons. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of growing seasons on some agronomic and quality characteristics of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) varieties in Mediterranean Region in Turkey. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block with three replications. The Arisoy, Atakisi, Ataem-7, Umut-2002, Turksoy, Adasoy, Cinsoy, Ilksoy, Sa-88, S.4240, Blaze and Nova varieties were used as a plant material in this research. The investigated characteristics such as plant height, pod and branch number per plant, the lowest pod height, 1000-seed weight, oil percentage and oil yield values of soybean varieties were higher in main crop than in double crop, whereas the protein percentage values was higher in double crop. The average seed yield of soybean varieties were 4616 kg ha(-1) in main crop and it was decreased to 4164 kg ha(-1) in double crop growing season. The average seed yield was higher in main crop than in double crop. According to a two-year average, the seed yield per hectare of soybean varieties was varied between 4323-5377 kg ha(-1) in main crop and 3194-4667 kg ha(-1) in double crop growing season, and the highest seed yield was obtained from Atakisi and Arisoy varieties in both growing seasons.