The aim of this study was to determine the rates, types, clinical features and treatment of osteoarthricular involvement of brucellosis in Turkey. In a restrospective study in adults, we investigated 238 patients diagnosed with brucellosis over a period of 6 years. A diagnosis of brucellosis was established by isolation of Brucella species in blood or by a compatible clinical picture together with a standard tube agglutination titre of greater than or equal to 1/160 of antibodies for brucellosis and/or demonstration of an at least four-fold rise in antibody titre in serum specimens taken over 2 or 3 weeks. Osteoarthricular involvement was defined by inflammatory signs in peripheral joints or by unrelieved pain at rest together with radiological alterations and/or radionuclide uptake in any deep joint. Eighty-seven patients (36.5%) had osteoarthricular involvement (58.6% female, 41.4% male), 47 (54.1%) of whom were reported to consume unpasteurised dairy products. The mean age was 32.3 +/- 16 years. Sacroiliitis was the most common involvement (n = 53, 60.9%) followed by peripheral arthritis (n = 17, 19.5%), spondylitis (n = 12, 13.8%) and bursitis (n = 5, 5.7%). During the observation period, 60 (69%) patients with osteoarthricular involvement and radiographic abnormalities. A bone scan was positive in 15 patients with no radiographic abnormalities. All patients received merely medical treatment and relapse occurred in five (5.7%) patients. Sacroiliitis has been determined as the most, frequently observed type of osteoarthricular involvement in brucellosis in Turkey.