In this study, we report a detailed analysis of the photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of La2CaB10O19 (LCB) doped with Dy ion. Dy doped LCB materials were successfully synthesized using a sol-gel combustion method. Dy doped LCB has the monoclinic structure with lattice parameters a = 11.02067 Å, b = 6.55755 Å, c = 9.10541 Å and α = γ = 90.00, and β = 91.49°. Under the excitation by a low voltage electron beam and pulse laser at 349 nm, the LCB:Dy3+ phosphor produces the characteristic emission bands of Dy3+ due to intra-configuration transitions of 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 (480 nm, blue), 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 (574 nm, yellow), 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 (662 nm, red) and 4F9/2 → 6H9/2 (752 nm, red). The concentration quenching phenomenon was observed in both CL and PL measurements and optimum doping concentration was estimated to be 2%. We suggest that the concentration quenching mechanism of intense yellow emission at 574 nm was attributed to dipole-dipole interaction for both CL and PL.