The present study was designed to understand the oxidative stress potential of fenthion, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide and its involvement in glutathione metabolism modulated buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 50 mg/kg) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 100 mg/kg) in the brain of fish, Oreochromis niloticus. A sublethal fenthion concentration (0.45 mg/L) was applied for 24, 48, and 96 In together with injection with BSO or NAC; following treatment, recovery periods for 24, 48, and 96 h were allowed. Total glutathione (tGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxidation, protein level, and GSH-related enzyme activities were analyzed by using spectrophotometric methods. Fenthion in applied concentration did not change GSH levels, but increased GSSG levels. BSO application in fenthion exposure caused a depletion in GSH, while increasing the GSSG levels. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 184.108.40.206) specific activity increased in fenthion-applied groups at 24-h treatment. gamma-Glutamylcysteinyl synthetase (gamma-GCS; EC 220.127.116.11) was not detected in the brain. NAC injection in fenthion treatment decreased GSH and increased GSSG levels and GST activity. In conclusion, fenthion in sublethal concentration induced an oxidative stress processes in brain., BSO application provided an evidence for the involvement of fenthion in GSH metabolism. NAC elevated the fenthion-induced effects in spite of its antioxiclant properties. Recovery period for 96 h was not adequate to eliminate the fenthion-induced changes. (C) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.