Stem rot disease of tomato, caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi, was detected for the first time in greenhouses in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey in 1994. Since 1999, serious outbreaks of the disease have occurred in many tomato greenhouses located in the Mediterranean and Aegean regions of Turkey. Therefore, a survey was conducted to study distribution of the disease in commercial greenhouses in Turkey. In 2003, incidence of the disease was more than 25% in Mediterranean and Aegean regions of Turkey. Recently, this disease is known to be one of the most destructive diseases of tomato in Turkey. Strains of soft rot erwinias were isolated and identified on the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical tests and fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The findings of over-summer studies demonstrated that soft rot erwinias were able to survive in infested plant debris and on/in seeds of tomato, which may be the primary inoculum sources of stem rot disease on tomato.