The N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain and plays an important role in neuronal development, learning and memory, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of NMDA receptor blockade during the early neurodevelopmental period on exploratory locomotion, anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive functions of adolescent Wistar rats. NMDA receptor hypofunction was induced 7-10 days after birth using MK-801 in rats (0.25 mg/kg twice a day for 4 days via intraperitoneal injection). The open-field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests were used to evaluate exploratory locomotion, anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive functions. In the OF test, MK-801 caused an increase in locomotion behavior (p < 0.01) and in the frequency of rearing (p < 0.05). In the EPM test, MK-801 treatment increased the time spent in the open arms, the number of open arm entries and the amount of head dipping (p < 0.01). MK-801 treatment caused no statistical difference compared to the control group in the PA test (p > 0.05). Chronic NMDA receptor blockade during the critical period of maturation for the glutamatergic brain system (postnatal days 7-10) produces locomotor hyperactivity and decreased anxiety levels, but has no significant main effect on cognitive function during adolescence.