Febrile neutropenia (FEN) is a significant side effect after chemotherapy, and it is known that using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has positive effects on treatment results. In this study, the effects of different G-CSF doses (5 to 10 mcg/kg/day) on treatment results in patients with high-risk FEN were evaluated. A total of 124 high-risk FEN episodes of 62 patients were enrolled in the study between June 2017 and October 2018. The episodes were divided into 2 groups according to G-CSF treatment doses, they received from 5 to 10 mcg/kg/day. The clinical characteristics of the patients, the treatments they received, laboratory findings, microbiologic results, and cost analysis were recorded. No statistically significant difference was found between 2 groups in terms of the mean duration of recovery from neutropenia, duration of fever, total length of hospital stay, duration of FEN episode, duration of G-CSF use, costs, bacteremia frequency, and other treatments. In patients with solid tumors, the cost of filgrastim was significantly higher in the high-dose G-CSF group. Using different doses of G-CSF in high-risk FEN episodes did not show any different effects on clinical and treatment results. The dose of 5 mcg/kg/day would be more appropriate in FEN treatment.