How Does the Skeletal Oncology Research Group Algorithm's Prediction of 5-year Survival in Patients with Chondrosarcoma Perform on International Validation?

Bongers M. E. R. , Karhade A., Setola E., Gambarotti M., Groot O. Q. , ERDOĞAN K. E. , ...Daha Fazla

CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH, cilt.478, ss.2300-2308, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 478 Konu: 10
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1097/corr.0000000000001305
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.2300-2308


Background The Skeletal Oncology Research Group (SORG) machine learning algorithm for predicting survival in patients with chondrosarcoma was developed using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. This algorithm was externally validated on a dataset of patients from the United States in an earlier study, where it demonstrated generally good performance but overestimated 5-year survival. In addition, this algorithm has not yet been validated in patients outside the United States; doing so would be important because external validation is necessary as algorithm performance may be misleading when applied in different populations. Questions/purposes Does the SORG algorithm retain validity in patients who underwent surgery for primary chondrosarcoma outside the United States, specifically in Italy? Methods A total of 737 patients were treated for chondrosarcoma between January 2000 and October 2014 at the Italian tertiary care center which was used for international validation. We excluded patients whose first surgical procedure was performed elsewhere (n = 25), patients who underwent nonsurgical treatment (n = 27), patients with a chondrosarcoma of the soft tissue or skull (n = 60), and patients with peripheral, periosteal, or mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (n = 161). Thus, 464 patients were ultimately included in this external validation study, as the earlier performed SEER study was used as the training set. Therefore, this study-unlike most of this type-does not have a training and validation set. Although the earlier study overestimated 5-year survival, we did not modify the algorithm in this report, as this is the first international validation and the prior performance in the single-institution validation study from the United States may have been driven by a small sample or non-generalizable patterns related to its single-center setting. Variables needed for the SORG algorithm were manually collected from electronic medical records. These included sex, age, histologic subtype, tumor grade, tumor size, tumor extension, and tumor location. By inputting these variables into the algorithm, we calculated the predicted probabilities of survival for each patient. The performance of the SORG algorithm was assessed in this study through discrimination (the ability of a model to distinguish between a binary outcome), calibration (the agreement of observed and predicted outcomes), overall performance (the accuracy of predictions), and decision curve analysis (establishment on the ability of a model to make a decision better than without using the model). For discrimination, the c-statistic (commonly known as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for binary classification) was calculated; this ranged from 0.5 (no better than chance) to 1.0 (excellent discrimination). The agreement between predicted and observed outcomes was visualized with a calibration plot, and the calibration slope and intercept were calculated. Perfect calibration results in a slope of 1 and an intercept of 0. For overall performance, the Brier score and the null-model Brier score were calculated. The Brier score ranges from 0 (perfect prediction) to 1 (poorest prediction). Appropriate interpretation of the Brier score requires comparison with the null-model Brier score. The null-model Brier score is the score for an algorithm that predicts a probability equal to the population prevalence of the outcome for every patient.