Haploidy in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.): a critical review

Bal U., Abak K.

EUPHYTICA, vol.158, pp.1-9, 2007 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 158
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10681-007-9427-1
  • Title of Journal : EUPHYTICA
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-9


Results on the induction of haploidy in tomato via both gynogenesis and microspore embryogenesis in vitro are far from satisfactory. The number of reports available on the gynogenic induction via in vitro non-fertilized ovary culture, wide hybridization and the use of irradiated pollen are limited. The main reason for this may be the difficulty experienced in working with this species. Therefore, many failed attempts have not been reported. Non-fertilized ovary culture and wide hybridization using Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. as the male parent seem to be promising (Bal and Abak, Pak J Biol Sci 6:745-749, 2003a, b). Further efforts in this line may improve results obtained earlier. Several reports (Gresshoff and Doy, Planta 107:161-170, 1972; Sharp et al., Planta 104:357-361, 1972; Zamir et al., Plant Sci Lett 17:353-361, 1980; Chlyah and Taarji, Proc. Int. Symp. Plant tissue and cell culture application to crop improvement. 24-29 Sept. 1984; Jaramillo and Summers, J Amer Soc Hort Sci 115:1047-1050, 1990, HortScience 26:915-916, 1991; Summers et al., HortScience 27:838-840, 1992) are available on anther culture of tomato but a working protocol is yet to be developed. For the induction of anther callus, anthers carrying microspores at the meiotic stages appear to be the most responsive. However, the callus and the regenerants obtained were mainly of somatic origin. Somatic tissues of tomato anthers carrying the meiotic stages are highly responsive to tissue culture manipulations in comparison to anther tissues of the later stages. Therefore, reports on the induction of callus from anthers carrying early microspore stages should be met with caution. If culturing young anthers is of any help then it may be that the anther tissues are nursing the microspores and bringing them to the responsive uninucleate stage. Following the first report by Sharp et al. (Planta 104:357-361, 1972) on the induction of microspore embryogenesis, using a modified version of the microspore culture, reports concentrated only on anther culture (reviewed by Chlyah et al., Haploids in crop improvement I. Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry 12. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990). Based on findings reported by Yinnan et al. (J Agric Biotechnol, http://www.cau.edu.cn/agrocbi/periodical/nyswjsxb/nysw99/nysw9901/990115.htm 1999) and Bal and Abak (Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 19:35-42, 2005) on the induction of symmetrical division of microspore nuclei from uninucleate microspores, the formation of multicellular structures and globular embryos, it is likely that the future of tomato haploidy lies in the technique of isolated microspore culture.