Recent studies suggest that nerve growth factor (NGF) protects olfactory cells and axons from injury in vitro. Eighteen Wistar-Albino rats randomly divided into three groups: control group, diabetic group without NGF, and diabetic with NGF. Intranasal NGF (6 mu g/day) was administered over a 5-day period. At the end of 30days, the olfactory epithelium (OE) of NGF-applied diabetic rats regenerated, the epithelium thickness was significantly higher, and caspase-3 expression was not significantly different from the control. The current results demonstrate that intranasally administered NGF significantly reversed OE morphological changes in diabetes by decreasing diabetes-related cell death and inflammation.