BeO, BeO:Al-1%, BeO:Ca-1%, and BeO:Al-1%, Ca-0.1% ceramics were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The X-ray luminescence was studied, and broad emission peaks located at 230 nm (similar to 5.4 eV) and 300 nm (similar to 4.1 eV) were observed. We investigated thermoluminescence peaks contributing to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals for the ceramics. The thermal quenching of the OSL signals was evaluated, and the quenching energies were estimated as between approximately 0.5 eV and approximately 0.7 eV. To check the feasibility for dosimetry purposes, the dose response, reusability, and dark storage fading of the OSL signals were investigated. The dose response was observed to be linear between 0.1 and 100 Gy. The minimum detectable doses of BeO, BeO:Al-1%, BeO:Ca-1%, and BeO:Al-1%, Ca-0.1% were estimated as approximately 0.9 mGy, approximately 4 mGy, approximately 0.5 mGy, and approximately 0.5 mGy, respectively. Very good reusability was observed over ten cycles, with a maximum deviation of 2%. The results obtained from BeO:Al-1%, Ca-0.1% could be useful for OSL dosimetry, particularly in medical applications.