Turkey is the origin of many important fruit and vegetable crops including pear, quince, plum, sweet and sour cherry, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, walnut, chestnut, olive, fig, pomegranate, rose, grape, lettuce, carrot, melon, and leek. Turkey has various climatic areas but most of the country tends to be arid. Principal export crops include hazelnut, pistachio, and raisins. There is an opportunity for Turkey to export organic products to European markets. The exploitation of the diverse genetic resources by collection, evaluation, and improvement is both an opportunities and a challenge to Turkish horticulturists.