Rocuronium bromide (RB), an aminosteroid type neuromuscular blocking agent, acts by reducing or inhibiting the depolarising effect of acetylcholine on the terminal disc of the muscle cell. To our knowledge, there is no adequate information on the genotoxic effects of RB, up to now. In the present study, possible genotoxic effects of RB have been determined by means of sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) analyses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to three different concentrations of RB (60, 80 and 100 mu g/mL) for 24- and 48-h. In this study, RB increased the frequency of CAs, however, did not increase the frequency of SCEs. RB did not decrease the proliferation index (PI) and mitotic index (MI). Accordingly, RB increased the frequency of micronucleus (MN) but did not decrease the nuclear division index (NDI). Findings from this study suggest that rocuronium bromide is clastogenic but not cytotoxic to cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes.