Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) are important pests in fruit production in Uruguay; however, very little is known about the species involved. A survey of mealybugs associated especially with fruit crops (apple, citrus, figs, grapes, pears, quince and strawberry), and other crops like vegetables and sugar cane, ornamentals and weeds was performed between 2017 and 2019 in Uruguay, using integrated taxonomy (morphology and DNA analyses) for their identification. A total of 19 mealybug species were identified. The most common species were Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Pseudococcus scatoterrae Granara de Willink and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) on fruits, and Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink and Planococcus citri (Risso) on ornamental plants, all of them causing damage to their hosts. This study presents nine new species records for Uruguay, besides the description of two new species. An identification key to the mealybugs in Uruguay is provided.