Survivin is a recently discovered member of the family of proteins that inhibits apoptosis. This anti-apoptotic compound can be detected in most types of cancer and expression is associated with a poor prognosis. We, immunohistochemically, investigated the expression of survivin in breast carcinomas and intraductal epithelial neoplasia of the breast to determine whether expression of this protein is associated with clinicopathological parameters such as grade, stage, mitotic rate. In 34 out of 43 cases (79.1%) of breast carcinoma and 2 2 out of 62 cases (35.4%) of intraductal epithelial neoplasia with mild, moderate and severe ductal epithelial, cell hyperplasia stained positively for survivin. None of the histological parameters analyzed were significantly correlated with survivin expression in breast carcinomas. In the carcinoma cases, survivin expression was positively correlated with expression of bcl-2,. but was not correlated with expression of p53, bax, c-erbB-2 and estrogen, or progesterone. Some of the intraductal epithelial neoplasia cases with moderate or severe ductal epithelial hyperplasia stained positively for both survivin and p53. Breast carcinomas exhibited a significant expression of survivin, p53, and bcl-2 compared to breast with intraductal epithelial neoplasia. Survivin was not correlated with any of the clinicopathological parameters studied, however it could be a useful toot in early carcinomas and florid, severe ductal epithelial hyperplasia.