To investigate the frequency and risk factors of ED in haemodialysis patients (HDps) and kidney transplantation (KTx) recipients (KTxRs). HDps and KTxRs between the ages of 18-65 were compared in terms of ED. IEFF-15 (International Index of Erectile Function) score was used to evaluation of ED. Fifty-seven male HDps and 52 male KTxRs with a mean age of 45.6 +/- 10.4 years were included in our study. DM, CAD, hyperlipidaemia, smoking and beta blocker use were higher HDps (p = 0.037, p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001 and p = 0.031 respectively). There was no ED in five (8.8%) HDps and 27(51.9%) KTxRx. Severity of ED was significantly higher in HDps (p < 0.001). In multiple logistic regression analysis, KTx was found the most relevant associated factor with ED. KTxRs had decreased risk for ED (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.30, p < 0.001). ED is significantly more common in HDps than KTxRs. Known risk factors for ED, HT, DM, CAD, HL, smoking, obesity and beta-blocker use were not related to ED in the HDps and KTxRs, and the KTx was positively effective for ED in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy.