With the widespread use of the prostate specific antigen and prostate biopsies there has been dramatic increase in the incidence of clinically localized prostate cancer. Although there is no consensus about the treatment of the disease, active monitoring, brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy or surgery are among methods used. Curative interventions are associated with functional declines in quality of life; therefore treatment does not prevent disease progression and/or death from cancer results in overtreatment with no clear benefit. Active surveillance is an important strategy in the management of clinically localized prostate cancer, predominantly low risk prostate cancer. It reduces the overtreatment and related morbidities, and also offer definitive therapies if the disease progresses.