Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) often have signs and symptoms related to fluid and electrolyte disturbances, anemia, malnutrition, bone disease, and gastrointestinal problems. Vascular and neurologic impairment in particular remain an important source of morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable patient population. Sagliker syndrome is a novel syndrome that was recently described in 2004 in patients with CRF and severe and late secondary hyperparathyroidism who suffered from severe skull and facial bone changes, particularly from uglifying human face appearances and neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this study was to assess neuropsychiatric manifestations occurring in CRF patients with Sagliker syndrome. Four female and 8 male patients with CRF on regular dialysis at the hemodialysis units of the Internal Medicine Departments around southern Turkey participated in the study. All patients underwent a clinical neurologic examination performed by the same neurologist. Neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms were found in all cases. The results showed that the most frequent neurologic manifestations in CRF patients with Sagliker syndrome were headache, polyneuropathy, cranial neuropathy, fatigue, and psychiatric disorders. (C) 2006 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.