In this study, pest and beneficial fauna in persimmon orchards have been identified in the provinces of Adana, Mersin, Hatay, Kahramanmara and Osmaniye, which was conducted during 2010-2011. Twenty-five pest species belonging to 16 families have been detected at the surveys. The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) was identified as the major pest species for persimmon in each provinces. Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill and Plano coccus citri Risso have been found to be prevalent as the next most prominent pest species behind Ceratitis capitata. Parlatoria oleae, Lobesia botrana and Sesamia nonogrionides have been demonstrated for the first time by this study in Turkey as the pest of persimmon. Thirty-one predator and parasitoid species belonging to 9 families were determined. Among these species, it was observed that Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Nephus includens Kirsch and Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) are considerably prevalent. It was observed that using environmentally friendly control measures such as biological control can keep the pest populations under economic damage threshold.