Evaluating the long-term effects of tillage systems on soil structural quality using visual assessment and classical methods


ÇELİK İ. , Gunal H., ACAR M. , Acir N., Barut Z. B. , Budak M.

SOIL USE AND MANAGEMENT, cilt.36, ss.223-239, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 36 Konu: 2
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1111/sum.12554
  • Dergi Adı: SOIL USE AND MANAGEMENT
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.223-239

Özet

In this study, we compared the conventional and conservation tillage systems in terms of

their effects on plant emergence and stand establishment. The systems consisted of

conventional tillage with stubble burning (CT1), conventional tillage with stubble (CT2),

minimum tillage with stubble (MT), combination of minimum and no tillage (MNT) and notillage (NT). The tillage treatments were used for Balatilla domestic wheat (Triticum

aestivum L.) and Pioneer Brand corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars under crop rotation. Mean

emergence day (MED), emergence rate index (ERI), percentage emergence (PE), multiple

index (MI), skip index (SI), quality of feed index (QFI), mean spacing between plants for

corn and plant density for wheat were evaluated for uniformity of plant emergence and

stand establishment. ERI and PE were significantly higher under CT and MT compared

with MNT and NT treatments in corn. Plant emergence in conventional tillage plots

occurred faster with over 95% emergence. Tillage treatments also affected SI, QFI and

mean plant spacing, but not MI. The best SI, QFI and plant spacing were recorded in the

CT and MT treatments. Uniformity of plant stand in the tilled plots, CT and MT were better

than that in no-tillage. No-till treatment had the poorest stand establishment. In wheat,

the highest plant density was obtained under CT and MT treatments. Based on the

average of 2 yr, the highest yield of wheat was obtained under CT and the lowest in NT.

Corn yield had similar results. The trend in yield for both crops also followed that of the

results for stand establishment and emergence parameters. The lower yield in no-till was

related to the weaker plant emergence and stand establishment. The comparable effect

of MT with CT suggests that MT can be an alternative tillage method for sustainable

agriculture.

In this study, we compared the conventional and conservation tillage systems in terms of

their effects on plant emergence and stand establishment. The systems consisted of

conventional tillage with stubble burning (CT1), conventional tillage with stubble (CT2),

minimum tillage with stubble (MT), combination of minimum and no tillage (MNT) and notillage (NT). The tillage treatments were used for Balatilla domestic wheat (Triticum

aestivum L.) and Pioneer Brand corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars under crop rotation. Mean

emergence day (MED), emergence rate index (ERI), percentage emergence (PE), multiple

index (MI), skip index (SI), quality of feed index (QFI), mean spacing between plants for

corn and plant density for wheat were evaluated for uniformity of plant emergence and

stand establishment. ERI and PE were significantly higher under CT and MT compared

with MNT and NT treatments in corn. Plant emergence in conventional tillage plots

occurred faster with over 95% emergence. Tillage treatments also affected SI, QFI and

mean plant spacing, but not MI. The best SI, QFI and plant spacing were recorded in the

CT and MT treatments. Uniformity of plant stand in the tilled plots, CT and MT were better

than that in no-tillage. No-till treatment had the poorest stand establishment. In wheat,

the highest plant density was obtained under CT and MT treatments. Based on the

average of 2 yr, the highest yield of wheat was obtained under CT and the lowest in NT.

Corn yield had similar results. The trend in yield for both crops also followed that of the

results for stand establishment and emergence parameters. The lower yield in no-till was

related to the weaker plant emergence and stand establishment. The comparable effect

of MT with CT suggests that MT can be an alternative tillage method for sustainable

agriculture.