Sulfur and nitrogen nutrition status in flag leaf and shoot samples collected from wheat growing areas in Çukurova, Central Anatolia and GAP regions of Turkey.

Gülüt K. Y., Hoşgökdelen B.

Saudi journal of biological sciences, vol.28, no.8, pp.4807-4817, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.05.010
  • Journal Name: Saudi journal of biological sciences
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.4807-4817
  • Keywords: Sulfur deficiency, Wheat, Central Anatolia, GAP, Turkey, cukurova, BRASSICA-NAPUS L., USE EFFICIENCY, QUALITY, YIELD, DEFICIENCY, FERTILIZER, DIAGNOSIS, GROWTH
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: Yes


Sulfur (S) deficiency in soils and plants has been increased in the recent decade which is reducing crop yield and quality. Unfortunately, no extensive study has been conducted on S nutritional status of plants in Turkey. In this study, soil and plant samples were collected from Cukurova, Central Anatolia and GAP regions where wheat is extensively cultivated. Plant samples either as flag leaf or the whole shoot were collected depending on growth stage of wheat crop at sample collection. Similarly, surface (0-20 cm) and sub-surface (20-40 cm) soil samples were collected from plant sampling sites and a total 963 plant and 1947 soil samples were collected during the study. The S concentration in flag leaf samples varied between 0.18 and 0.67%, 0.11-0.59% and 0.17-0.82% for central Anatolia, Cukurova and GAP regions, respectively. According to S concentration in flag leaf samples, 99% of the plants in Cukurova region were found sufficient in S nutrition. However, 49% of the samples collected from central Anatolia and GAP regions were deficient in S. Critical N:S ratio indicating S nutrition status of plants was lower than the widely accepted critical value of 17. This low N:S ratio was a consequence of deficient N nutrition rather than S nutrition. Moreover, it was observed that plant available SO4-S concentration of soils varied within and among sampled provinces with an average value of 20.6 and 31.6 mg kg(-1) for surface and subsurface samples, respectively. The SO4-S concentration increased with increasing soil depth. The results indicate a significantly positive correlation between S concentration in plant shoot and plant available SO4-S concentration in soils. In conclusion, S-containing fertilizer use in central Anatolia and GAP regions must be considered as an important approach for the prevention of yield and quality losses. Furthermore, rapid and sensitive plant and soil analysis methods are needed, which must also consider the local and site-specific conditions. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. T