Otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the most common health problems seen in children. The role of autoimmunity in the etiology of OME has been discussed for a long time. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the role of circulating antibodies in the pathogenesis of OME. The presence of antibodies against rabbit tympanic bulla epithelium was investigated by indirect immunoflouresence in the serum samples of 25 patients with OME and serum samples of 25 healthy children as a control group. In the control group, positive staining was seen in only 1 case (4%), whereas 8 cases with OME were positively stained (%32). There was statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. The presence of antibodies against middle ear epithelium in the cases with OME suggest that autoimmunity might play a role in the formation of effusion in the tympanic cavity.