The embryonic development of Xenopus laevis under a low frequency electric field

Boga A., Binokay S., EMRE M. , SERTDEMİR Y.

IN VITRO CELLULAR & DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY-ANIMAL, vol.48, no.6, pp.385-391, 2012 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11626-012-9519-7
  • Page Numbers: pp.385-391


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a low frequency electric field on the early embryonic development of frogs. The embryos of African clawed toads, Xenopus laevis, were exposed to a 20-mu A electric current during the cleavage stages. The developmental processes of embryos during and after electric field exposure were monitored for teratogenic effects. All the embryos continuously exposed to the electric field died without undergoing any developmental processes. However, when the embryos were exposed to the electric field for 20-min periods (four times/over 2 d), the embryos developed into both normal tadpoles (70 %) and malformed tadpoles with light edema, reduced pigmentation, or axial anomalies, such as crooked tails. After exposure, the control embryos were at development stage 35.5 (2 d 2 h), while the normal embryos of the assay group were at developmental stage 41(3 d 4 h). There was a 1 d 2 h difference between the two developmental stages, revealing the importance of that time period for embryogenesis. In conclusion, the effects of electric current on Xenopus embryos are dependent on the initial developmental stage and the duration of exposure.