BackgroundNeuroendocrine tumours (NETs) arise from hormone-producing or nervous system cells and can develop from anywhere in the body. They have heterogeneous origins from skin to gastrointestinal track and a complicated histology. Thus, there is an inevitable need for genomic profiling to determine the exact genetics of each tumour for prognosis and treatment strategies to overcome the disease's complexity. For this purpose, next-generation-sequencing (NGS) is the most reliable methodology for both germ-line and somatic studies to make a clinical diagnosis. In this study, we analyse liquid biopsies, formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues, and peripheral blood samples for their ability to provide information for actionability.MethodsA customized multi-gene panel comprised of Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Iron Sulfur Subunit B (SDHB), Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Subunit C (SDHC), Cell Division Cycle 73(CDC73), Calcium Sensing Receptor (CASR), Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha (PDGFRA), Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Flavoprotein Subunit A (SDHA), Ret Proto-Oncogene (RET), Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Assembly Factor 2(SDHAF2), Menin 1(MEN1), Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Subunit D (SDHD), MYC Associated Factor X (MAX) and Protein Kinase CAMP-Dependent Type I Regulatory Subunit Alpha (PRKAR1A) genes was constructed to assess multiple specimen types including: 3 liquid biopsies, 6 FFPE tissues, and 26 peripheral blood samples from 35 unique NET patients. Quality-control and bioinformatics analyses were performed using QCI-Analyze and QCI-Interpret.ResultsThe three liquid biopsies and the 6 FFPE tissue samples were evaluated for somatic mutations; while the 26 peripheral blood samples were analysed using the germ-line pipeline. Five (55.6%) of the nine patients that were studied for somatic changes carried actionable mutations related to therapy sensitivities. Through the germ-line studies, we observed a 50% positivity rate for disease predisposition with 16 variants classified according to ACMG (American College of Medical Genetics) Standards and Guidelines.ConclusionsGenomic profiling medicine is an emerging area of clinical oncology and has become crucial for disease and patient management by providing a precision approach; this is especially true for rare diseases including rare cancers such as NETs. Notably, this study emphasized the relevance of multiple distinctive biological sample types for use in the genetic testing of cancers to help with the choice of therapy to maximize the likelihood of a positive clinical outcome.