Total replacement of fish meal with plant proteins in diets for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) II - Health aspects


Olsen R. E. , Hansen A., Rosenlund G., Hernre G., MayheW T. M. , Knudsen D. L. , ...More

AQUACULTURE, vol.272, pp.612-624, 2007 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 272
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.05.010
  • Title of Journal : AQUACULTURE
  • Page Numbers: pp.612-624

Abstract

Replicate groups of Atlantic cod were fed 5 diets in which fish meal protein was replaced with 25% (25 PP), 50% (50 PP), 75% (75 PP) and 100% (100 PP) of a plant protein mixture containing 50% wheat gluten, 36% soy protein concentrate and 14% bioprocessed soybean meal. After 28 weeks, fish were sacrificed and analysed for growth, feed conversion, nutrient digestibility (see [Hansen, A.-C., Rosenlund, G., Karlsen, phi., Koppe, W., Hemre, G.-I., Accepted for publication. Total replacement of fish meal with plant proteins in diets for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) 1: Effects on growth and protein retention. Aquaculture]) and health status. Except for small reductions in the mean cell volume and haemoglobin content of red blood corpuscles, health indicators in blood and plasma were mostly unaffected by diet. Although the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of nutrients was only marginally affected by diet [Hansen, A.-C., Rosenlund, G., Karlsen, **., Koppe, W., Hemre, G.-I., Accepted for publication. Total replacement of fish meal with plant proteins in diets for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) 1: Effects on growth and protein retention. Aquaculture], faeces moisture content increased non-linearly peaking in fish fed the 100 PP diet where dry matter was only 11% compared to 18% in the control fish. This indicates a progression towards a diarrhoea-like condition in 100 PP fish. Feeding plant proteins did not affect gut relative weight but did affect intestinal morphology. In particular, there was a general increase in cellularity of the lamina propria and a modest goblet cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia which peaked in fish fed the 100 PP diet. More severe enteritis-Re conditions were rare and found in only two fish fed the 100 PP diet. The dietary effect on goblet cells may be caused by phytate or fibres rather than the primary enteritis-inducing compounds found in untreated soybean meal. Hindgut segments seemed to be more affected than midgut thus suggesting an up-concentration of the causative agents of intestinal alteration in hindgut regions. Soyasaponins were not degraded during gut transit although the various conjugates were hydrolysed increasing the level of un-conjugated soyasaponins in the faeces. The intestinal level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was unaffected by diet except in one replicate pen of fish fed the 100 PP diet where expression increased fourfold compared to the