Determination of microbial quality and plasmid-mediated multidrug resistant bacteria in fountain drinking water sources in Turkey

Akturk S., DİNÇER S. , Toroglu S.

JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY, vol.33, no.6, pp.1127-1136, 2012 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 33 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Page Numbers: pp.1127-1136


The bacterial contamination as the total aerobic bacteria, coliform and fecal coliform numbers were determined and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen in seasonally collected water samples from fifteen different stations placed in Adana-Tufanbeyli road line during March 2008-January 2009. In addition, antibiotic resistance profiles of isolates were examined against frequently used antibiotics, and analyzed plasmid DNA of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) isolates. Total aerobic bacteria in fountain water samples was determined as 3x10(3)CFU ml(-1) and total and fecal coliforms were determined 460 MPN/100 ml. Results obtained from biochemical analysis showed that 121 of the isolates were Proteus vulgaris, 69 Escherichia coli, 51 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 28 Citrobacter spp. According to these results, the existence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in stations 2 and 10, and Streptococcus faecalis in stations 11 and 15 respectively were confirmed. Clostridium perfringens was not detected in water samples. A total of 273 isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by agar disc diffusion methods. A total of sixteen antibiotics were used for determination of antibiotic resistance of isolates. Resistance to bacitracin, vancomycine, cephalothin and ampicillin was detected in 77, 77, 63 and 50%, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) value >= 0.25 was determined in 68.4% of identified 273 isolates and meaning of this percentage were resistant to four and more antibiotics. Plasmid DNA was isolated from 22 isolates with multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 taken randomly by agarose-gel electrophoresis, some of them contain a high-molecular weight plasmid DNA. Highlight of our study that the appearance of potential antibiotic resistances in fountain drinking water requires increased surveillance for risk assessment and prevention strategies to protect public health.