Background: Some patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) develop reflux nephropathy (RN) and a number of them progress to chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is unclear to predict which patient will develop RN and/or CKD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of Interleukin-18 (IL-18), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) as an indicator of RN in VUR. Methods: Ninety-three children aged 3.5-16 years with primary VUR were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of renal scarring (RS). CRP, PCT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), urinary protein (Up), creatinine (Ucr) and microalbumin (Umalb), serum and urine IL-18 levels were determined during urinary tract infection (UTI) free episode. Results: BUN, Scr, Up/Ucr and Umalb/Ucr concentrations were higher whereas calculated creatinine clearance (Ccr) values were lower in RS (+) group compared to RS (-) group. CRP, PCT, serum and urine IL-18 levels and mean urine IL-18/Cr concentrations were similar in both groups. Serum and urine IL-18 levels did not differ according to the grade of VUR. No significant correlation was found between CRP, PCT and IL-18. Conclusions: Proteinuria and microalbuminuria are valuable hallmarks of RN. CRP and PCT seem not to be reliable indicators of RN in VUR patients. Moreover, serum and urine IL-18 might not predict RN.