The Taurus Mountain range separates the central Anatolian steppe and the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Amanos Mountains lie to the east, playing a significant role in forming this region which is strongly influenced by the Mediterranean Sea. Between the Taurus Mountains and the sea, there is a diversity of terrestrial, limnic and marine ecosystems. These contain a number of differing biotopes such as grassland above the timberline, evergreen and deciduous forests, scrubland, river beds, lagoons, coastal saltmarshes, coastal woodlands and sand dunes. Due to intensive land use, the ecological diversity is threatened, and so governmental and scientific bodies have combined resources to implement conservation measures. This paper emphasizes the importance of these conservation activities and discusses realistic proposals for conservation in the region.