Vernalization and photoperiod response genes play a significant role in the geographical adaptation, agronomic performance and yield potential of crops. Therefore, understanding the distribution pattern and allelic diversity for vernalization and photoperiod genes are important in any wheat breeding program. In this study, we screened 63 bread wheat cultivars and 7 bread wheat landraces from Turkey for photoperiod (Ppd-D1) and vernalization genes (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1 and Vrn-B3) using diagnostic molecular markers. The photoperiod insensitive dominant allele, Ppd-D1a, was present in 60% of wheat cultivars and 42% of landraces, whereas, all other genotypes carried the photoperiod sensitive allele Ppd-D1b as recessive allele. Twenty-four cultivars and two landraces contained recessive alleles for all four VRN loci, whereas 39 wheat cultivars and 6 landraces contained one or more dominant VRN alleles. The highest percentage of Turkish wheat cultivars contained the dominant Vrn-B1 allele followed by Vrn-D1 and Vrn-A1. Information for vernalization and photoperiod alleles in Turkish germplasm will facilitate the planning and implementation of molecular markers in wheat breeding programs. This information will be helpful to develop elite wheat cultivars carrying suitable vernalization and photoperiod alleles with higher grain yield potential and better quality suitable for different production environments through marker assisted selection.