Vineyards in Turkey were surveyed from July-August of 2006-2007 for the presence of mealybug infestation and the viral agents of leafroll and rugose wood diseases, namely vitiviruses and ampeloviruses, respectively. Plant and insect samples in the main grape-growing regions were collected and processed for nucleic acid isolation. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the insect-transmitted Grapevine virus A (GVA) and B (GVB) (Vitivirus) and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-1 (GLRaV-1) and -3 (GLRaV-3) (Ampelovirus). All viruses except GVB were detected in the samples. Planococcus ficus (Signoret) is the only mealybug species found to be widespread in the sampled areas. This is the first epidemiological study of these viruses and their potential vector in Turkey.