The current study was designed to find out how olive maturity indices (2.5, 3.5, and 4.5) affect the individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant potencies of olive oils produced from cv. Nizip Yaglik olives. Liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode was utilized for the determination of phenolic composition qualitatively and quantitatively. Findings asserted a quite similar phenolic profile (14 phenols) depending on the various phenolic groups in all oils, while the concentration of total and individual phenolic compounds revealed significant differences between the samples statistically (p < 0.05). Among the individual phenolic classes in all samples, secoiridoids were the most prevailing group and their total content showed a clear significant decline as the olive fruits get ripened. Antioxidant potency values showed a clear diminution attitude during the maturation of the olives. The principal component analysis revealed that oils were discriminated from each other according to phenolic compounds and antioxidant potencies. Moreover, oils obtained from the unripe and medium-ripe fruits possessed a very good quality marked by their elevated phenolic levels.