In this study, the objective was to determine the influence of using expanded perlite or exfoliated vermiculite as filler on the properties of magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC). The starting materials necessary for producing MOC were obtained from dolomite ore. Expanded perlite and exfoliated vermiculite were selected as filler for this study. The microstructure of MOC was imaged by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of filler in the MOC led to a decrease in its density and thermal conductivity. The workability and fluidity of the MOC were strongly influenced by the amount of the filler. Although the amount of carbon in the MOC decreased with an increase in the amount of the filler, the carbonation of MOC was not totally prevented and it occurred through exposure of its surface to carbon dioxide at ambient temperature after 600 d of curing.