We investigated the effect of rosiglitazone (RSG), a high-affinity ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Gamma which mediates insulin-sensitizing actions, on the lipid profile and oxidative status in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Wistar albino male rats were randomly divided into an untreated control group (C), a C + RSG group which was treated with RSG (4 mg kg(-1)) two times a day by gavage, a diabetic group (D) that was treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (45 mg kg(-1)), D + RSG group which were treated with RSG two times a day by gavage, respectively. Lipid profiles, HbA(1c) and blood glucose levels in the circulation and malondialdehyde (MDA) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels in left ventricular muscle were measured. Treatment of D rats with RSG resulted in a time-dependent decrease in blood glucose. We found that the lipid profile and HbA(1c) levels in D + RSG group reached the C rat values at the end of the treatment period. There was a statistically significant difference between the C + RSG and C Groups in 3-NT levels. In group D, 3-NT and MDA levels were found to be increased when compared with C, C + RSG and D + RSG groups. In the D + RSG group, MDA levels were found to be decreased when compared with C and C + RSG. Our study suggests that the treatment of D rats with RSG for 8 weeks may decrease the oxidative/nitrosative stress in left ventricular tissue of rats. Thus in diabetes-related vascular diseases, RSG treatment may be cardioprotective. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.