Land surface temperature (LST) calculation utilizing satellite thermal images is very difficult due to the great temporal variance of atmospheric water vapor in the atmosphere which strongly affects the thermal radiance incoming to satellite sensors. In this study, Split-Window (SW) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) methods were utilized for prediction of LST using precipitable water for Turkey. Coll 94 Split-Window algorithm was modified using regional precipitable water values estimated from upper-air Radiosond observations for the years 1990-2007 and Local Split-Window (LSW) algorithms were generated for the study area. Using local algorithms and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, monthly mean daily sum LST values were calculated. In RBF method latitude, longitude, altitude, surface emissivity, sun shine duration and precipitable water values were used as input variables of the structure. Correlation coefficients between estimated and measured LST values were obtained as 99.23% (for RBF) and 94.48% (for LSW) at 00:00 UTC and 92.77% (for RBF) and 89.98% (for LSW) at 12:00 UTC. These meaningful statistical results suggest that RBF and LSW methods could be used for LST calculation. (C) 2014 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.