4-Thujanol, a bicyclic monoterpene alcohol, is present in the essential oils of many medicinal and aromatic plants. It is commonly used as a fragrance and flavouring ingredient in a lot of different products. The potential genotoxic effects of 4-thujanol on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were investigated in vitro by the chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronucleus (MN) tests. The cells were treated with 13, 26 and 52 mu g/mL 4-thujanol in the presence and absence of a metabolic activator (S9 mix). 4-Thujanol induced CA (P < 0.001) and MN formation (P < 0.05) at all concentrations (13, 26 and 52 mu g/mL) in the presence and absence of the S9 mix without a concentration-dependent manner. However, the treatment of peripheral lymphocytes with 4-thujanol did not produce a statistical difference in the frequency of SCEs when compared with control group. Furthermore, this monoterpene did not significantly decrease the mitotic index (MI), proliferation index (PI), and nuclear division index (NDI). In conclusion, 4-thujanol had a significant clastogenic effect at the tested concentrations (13, 26 and 52 mu g/mL) for human PBLs. In addition, no cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effects were observed regardless of the concentrations used. This work presents the first report on genotoxic properties of 4-thujanol.